Никола Образописов – зограф и борец за църковна независимост

Никола Образописов е роден на 7.VIII.1828 г. в село Продановци при Самоков, Софийско. Син на Йован иконописец, представител на Самоковската художествена школа. От 50-те г. на ХХ век участва активно в борбата за прогонването на гръцкото духовенство.

Изявява и противотурските си настроения и желание за свобода. Облича се и се въоръжава по наполеоновски, в дома си лее куршуми. Между стенописите на къщата си в Самоков изписва руски войник, свирещ на бойна тръба, и надпис „Московец сей возтрубил“. През 1852 г. прави опит да издаде учебник по география. Изпраща до вестник „Гайда“ на П. Р. Славейков рисунки на народни носии от Самоковско, Софийско и Пазарджишко.

Художественото му творчество е богато и разнообразно. Изучил занаята при баща си, той отрано, около 20-годишен, започва да работи икони и стенописи в много църкви и манастири из Югозападна България: икони в църквата на с. Радибош при Радомир, Пернишка област (1848), в Лозенския манастир „Св. Спас“ (1855), в църквата на село Шипочане и на с. Горни Окол, Софийско (1857, заедно с учениците си Хр. Зах. Зографски и Д. Христов от Самоков и Ив. Станчов), в църквата „Св. Богородица“ в Дупница, в бившето село Попово (Витошко), Пернишко.

През 1863 г. Образописов създава нови стенописи върху старите на църквата „Св. Петър и Павел“ на метоха Орлица при Рилския манастир: образи на светци и царе, на Кирил и Методий, сцени от живота на Иван Рилски, дванадесетте апостоли, изображения от ада, сцената „Отиването и при врачката“. На северната страна на нартиката изписва най-значителната си композиция – „Пренасяне мощите на св. Иван Рилски от Търново в Рилския манастир“, с размери 1,70 на 3,90 м. През 60-те години Образописов продължава да рисува икони самостоятелно или с учениците си Хр. Зах. Зографски, Д. Христов и Константин Геров в църкви в Самоков, Софийско, Пернишко, Кюстендилско.

От 1871 до 1893 г. Образописов си води „Счетник“ – сметководна книга, в която отразява дейността си, като отбелязва годините и сметките от различните места – църквите, манастирите, селищата и лицата, които са правили поръчките.

През тези 22 г. развива огромна по обем дейност, изписва стотици икони и стенописи, през 1871 – 1872 г. рисува иконите на новоизградената църква „Успение Богородично“ в Пирот. През 1883 г. рисува олтарни икони и герба на славянски народи (взети от „Стематографията“ на Хр. Жефарович) върху иконостаса, а през 1884 г. поправя стенописите в нартиката на главната църква „Света Богородица“ на Рилския манастир. Изпълнен с любов към природата, Образописов рисува пейзажи, както и няколко портрета – на баща си Йован Иконописец (в Самоковския музей), собствен портрет, портрети на жена си и дъщеря си Райна, със съпруга й Вл. Неделев, правени по фотографски снимки.

За Пловдивското изложение през 1892 г. на Образописов е възложено да нарисува няколко картини, между които и известната композиция „Самоковско хоро“ (в НХГ), която е значително постижение на светската художествена дейност на автора. В условията след Освобождението през 1878 г. работата на иконописците намалява, разпространяват се евтини литографски икони. Образописов започва да печата щампи, като сам изрязва на дърво гравюрите, отпечатва и оцветява щампите.

Мариана КОРФОНОЗОВА

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